Techniques for generating and executing trajectories to guide autonomous vehicles are described. In an example, a first computer system associated with an autonomous vehicle can generate, at a first operational frequency, a route to guide the autonomous vehicle from a current location to a target location. The first computer system can further determine, at a second operational frequency, an instruction for guiding the autonomous vehicle along the route and can generate, at a third operational frequency, a trajectory based at least partly on the instruction and real-time processed sensor data. A second computer system that is associated with the autonomous vehicle and is in communication with the first computer system can execute, at a fourth operational frequency, the trajectory to cause the autonomous vehicle to travel along the route. The separation of the first computer system and the second computer system can provide enhanced safety, redundancy, and optimization.